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- ItemAbortion and Sanctity of Human Life(Tangaza College, 2009) Njagi, Reuben, KAbortion remains one of the most famous debated social and moral issues. Both pro-life and pro-choice groups present powerful arguments for and against abortion. The pro-life group emphasizes the value of protecting human life since conception at any cost, on the basis of the fact that human life is a sacred gift from God to humanity and should be treated with respect and reverence. The pro-choice group emphasizes the argument that women should have a right to control their body to the point of absolutizing her right over the natural phenomenon of development of a new being. Because of this for at least 25 years now, the issue of abortion has grown increasingly difficult in our contemporary society.
- ItemThe Acquisition Of English Language Sentence Structure In Nairobi Kindergarten Schools: A Case Study Of Our Lady Of Guadalupe Nursery School, Nairobi(Tangaza University College, 2003) Kpanah, Petronilla IfeomaThis research was designed to study the acquisition of English Language Sentence Structure in Nairobi Kindergarten Schools. Our Lady of Guadalupe Nursery School was chosen as a case study. The objectives of the study included finding out the problem of acquisition of English Language Sentence Structure in Nairobi Kindergarten Schools and to highlight some possible solutions to the problems that pupils encounter in the acquisition process. To be able to achieve these objectives, four research questions were formulated namely: What are the differences in sentence structure between L 1 and L2 What part of English language sentence structure that affected by LI, What is the relationship between the first and the second language acquisition? LI and L2 are almost the same in sentence structure, especially with the Bantu languages and English language structure. • The teachers' constant corrections of the pupils and practice help in the language acquisition process. • That there are problems of interference on the pupils' acquisition of LI, such as L I, family background, environment and slow learning. The researcher gave some recommendations based on the findings that: There is need for frequent and systematic monitoring of pupils' academic progress. The teachers should help their pupils to develop better acquisition skills of speaking, listening, writing and reading. Finally, the researcher suggests some areas of further study on the teaching of English as L2, pronunciation in L2, learners' errors and inter-language and 'state of the art' in child language acquisition. 4) What are the interferences to the acquisition of English language sentence structure of a child at Kindergarten level? The researcher conducted interviews and made observations to gather the data for the study. The out come of the research show some of the major findings as:
- ItemThe Acquisition of English Language Sentence Structure in Nairobi Kindergaten Schools: Case Study of Our Lady of Guadalupe Nursery School Nairobi.(Tangaza University College, 2004-05) Kpanall, Petronilla IfeomaThis research was designed to study the acquisition of English Language Sentence Structure in Nairobi Kindergarten Schools. Our Lady of Guadalupe Nursery School was chosen as a case study. The objectives of the study included finding out the problem of acquisition of English Language Sentence Structure in Nairobi Kindergarten Schools and to highlight some possible solutions to the problems that pupils encounter in the acquisition process. To be able to achieve these objectives, four research questions were formulated namely: 1) What are the differences in sentence structure between L I and L2? 2) What part of English language sentence structure that affected by Li 3) What is the relationship between the first and the second language acquisition? 4) What are the interferences to the acquisition of English language sentence structure of a child at Kindergarten level? The researcher conducted interviews and made observations to gather the data for the study. The out come of the research show some of the major findings as: • Li and L2 are almost the same in sentence structure, especially with the Bantu languages and English language structure. • The teachers' constant corrections of the pupils and practice help in the language acquisition process. • That there are problems of interference on the pupils' acquisition of Li, such as Li, family background, environment and slow learning. The researcher gave some recommendations based on the findings that: There is need for frequent and systematic monitoring of pupils' academic progress. The teachers should help their pupils to develop better acquisition skills of speaking, listening, writing and reading. Finally, the researcher suggests some areas of further study on the teaching of English as L2, pronunciation in L2, learners' errors and inter-language and 'state of the art' in child language acquisition.
- ItemACRITICAL ANALYSIS OF KARL POPPERS THEORY OF POLITICS TO THE UGANDAN POLITICS.(Tangaza University College, 2023-01-11) BIRUNGI., ThomasPolitics is a series of actions that involve deliberation within a group or other types of interpersonal power dynamics, such as the allocation of resources or status. The goal of this essay is to clearly state the various factors that come into play when interpreting political dynamics including power and resources. I'll consider it in light of modern philosopher Karl Popper. The study will also examine democracy and how it is now performed in both Uganda and the rest of the globe. We will learn why people are deceived or poorly governed rather than having a proper government that is at their service, particularly in Uganda. The primary goal of this essay is to examine Karl Popper's views on politics, democracy, and how they affect individuals today in the creation of effective governments. I'll also check out what other philosophers have to say about democracy and politics. Examining present political practices in Uganda such as detention facilities, “closed political centers,” state-sanctioned illegal push-backs of political parties, etc. reveals the aggravation. Politicians are not limited to serving in national government; they can also serve as heads of their own families, provided they are not subject to outside authority. This implies that being a politician is possible even if you disagree with other politicians. Socrates became a politician to the point of being accused because he had a different mentality or notion about the nature of truth than the judges in his court. In summary, we will wrap up this thesis's discussion by offering solutions on how to stop Uganda's bad governance and political unrest.
- ItemActive Non-Violence: A Means of Personal and Social Change(Tangaza University College, 2001-04) Kokonya, Pamela AchiengViolence is as old as humanity. Efforts have always been there at various levels to minimize it yet the world today appears to be more violent than ever. More weapons than ever stand poised at all times on the brink of disaster. In part, this is seen as reason why the Americans keep an eye on Saddam Hussein, the President of Iraq for fear that he could destroy the whole Middle East or even the world. Today, many people live on a nervous edge all the time, thus requiring the large number of psychologists and psychiatrists that the world has. Before the era of the present advanced technology, one would destroy another person with a spear. Today, it would only take the press of a button to extinguish the whole world. For many years, many people have believed and acted as if the only solution to conflict is violence. Unfortunately, this is not the whole truth. Violence is a quick-fix method that succeeds in as much as it instills fear in the weaker party, leading to the withdrawal or submission of the weaker one. But the source of conflict still lurks. We see this in families that believe in corporal punishment as the one and only means of instilling discipline in their children. A child may have the habit of not eating in their house but feed to its full at the neighbor's. As a result, the parents constantly beat the child for doing so. Though the child, out of fear of more beatings may stop the habit, the reason underlying the behavior will not have been addressed. For instance, it could be that at the neighbor's, the family sits round the meals and each and every individual's needs are catered for, thus creating a very homely atmosphere which may be lacking at the child's home. Violence is force or the use of force that is injurious and destructive of the life or quality of life or dignity of any human person. Violence begets violence. Active non-violence on the other hand, is a way of life towards personal, social, national and international change based on the power of truth and the force of love. Parties in conflict dialogue for the betterment of all the stakeholders. There is no winner or loser. Violence has wrecked havoc in Africa; the continent has the largest number of refugees. Generally speaking, the refugee situation in, for example, Guinea is the worst in the world. The people are the poorest not because they are lazy but because of profit-driven economic integration that favors the already rich. However, we find non-violent ways of conflict resolutions though non-violence by the use of masses is a new concept. To some communities, especially the so-called warrior communities, such a concept is difficult to digest. There are cases where religion has been used to perpetrate violence. Examples of this include the Historical Christian crusades and the Jihad. However, the holy books such as the Qur'an, the Bible and the Gita among others, underline non-violence, portraying the Supreme Being as one of Justice and Peace and not war. For peace to reign in this world, it is important that the faithful adhere to their religious teachings and constantly dialogue among themselves and with other religions. This Long Essay is an effort to critique violence as the solution to conflicts and to propose an alternative, Active Non-violence, as a more effective and long lasting solution.
- ItemActs of Compassion In The Synoptic Gospels(Tangaza College, 2009) Mutuku, Dominic, WambuaThe work at hand is an exposition of the acts of compassion in the synoptic gospels, most of which are associated with Jesus himself, whereby he is moved with compassion for people in different kinds of needs. Mostly, Jesus was moved with compassion to heal. He was also moved with compassion for the crowds. There are also other acts of compassion in the synoptic gospels that are not directly connected with Jesus. Such acts are found in some parables. Part of this introduction will list the occurrences of compassion in the synoptic gospels, besides looking at the meaning of the word "compassion" as it appears in the synoptics.
- ItemThe Advantages of Coeducation in Kenyan Colleges.(Tangaza University College, 2001-05) waeni kamweli, RosaThe aims of this research was to find out the advantages of coeducation in Kenyan colleges. To be able to make the study, two religious-run colleges with males and females studying together were chosen. The colleges were Marist International Centre and Tangaza Colleges. The objectives of the study included finding out ways in which coeducation fosters maturity in a person and its social context. To identify the problems that inhibit the learning process due to coeducation. To find out if the students have particular difficulties in relating together. To find out which particular problems the administration encounters because of co-education. To be able to achieve these objectives, four research questions were used in all the findings in order to help the researcher prove if coeducation has advantages in Kenyan colleges. They were also prepared to know from the respondents if they approve or disapprove the researchers hypotheses. The researcher used one instrument to be able to gather the information; the questionnaire. These questionnaires were sent to the students only. They were composed of open-ended questions and closed-ended questions. Open-ended questions helped to give more information since the students showed their broad ideas on the subject. The outcome of the study shows that coeducation in Kenyan colleges has many advantages that have been proved correct by the respondents Through coeducation, one learns to relate better with the opposite sex, self-awareness that takes place Some students even feel that coeducation helps them to shape the way they expose themselves and their behaviour towards others. If coeducation reduces taboos that had been developed before, then this is a great advantage. Most students expressed that; it raises their self-esteem. The study then gives some recommendations to the students themselves, the administration in both colleges and to the formators. Students should learn to integrate what they learn in academic so that they can apply in their daily lives. The formators should also help them to do the same. The administration must help the students to have a holistic kind of education by increasing the number of female students and lay students. Finally, the researcher suggests some areas of further study on coeducation. For instance, the research is limited to a religious run College. It would be very interesting to conduct the same research on other public universities both within Nairobi and even outside of Nairobi. Since the researcher was limited by time, few instruments of data were used to be able to get the data for analysis, it would be interesting to conduct the same research and collect data from neighbours of any university.
- ItemAffirmative Thought and Action as a Key To Youth Ministry(Tangaza University College, 2002-02-07) Projectus, RutasitaraTo begin with. I think these words are proper to serve as an orienting spirit of our work in looking at the general scene of young people and the faith I am obliged to think that we now have a new situation. It is not just a question of' young people going through a phase as they always did; new approaches have to be found' These are the words of a keen observer in the youth ministry who declined to have his name mentioned. I may as well say that, they echo my sentiments and concern in regard to their needs of love and understanding In my ministry I have always been honoured to have an opportunity to be with the youth It is this kind of contact which enabled me to develop an interest in them, to get to know them and share in their interests, happiness, worries and concerns. The young people are active and have got a lot of energy in them ready to unleash it for the common good of the society and the Church. But they need guidance, proper care to steer them away safely through this transitional, turmoil period of adolescence. Indeed, it is true that the society's values do not render the same support towards unlocking fully their potentialities; and promoting their positive growth as people of balanced personality and informed conscience. We all know the problem of modernity with its impact of materialism and secularism on youth. We are as well aware of the new mentality present among these young people. This situation poses a challenge We need to equip ourselves with new approaches, in order to Ike and dialogue with the youth in their situation. Youth are in search for their identity and proper place in the Church and State It is possible to touch their hearts and guide them to fulfill their desires and dreams for creativity, recognition, justice, freedom and truth. It is possible to achieve this if we can employ consciously affirmative thought and action as a style in youth ministry care
- ItemAfrica and the Kingdom Of Peace and Justice(Tangaza University College, 1998-02-16) Hieronymus, JoySTRUCTURE: The work is divided into four chapters. The first chapter discusses the Kingdom of God in Africa. This should be relevant in this essay as we cannot understand the whole discussion about the values of God's Kingdom without grasping what we mean by that kingdom and an understanding of Africa and her natives before receiving the message of the Kingdom. The Second Chapter deals with Africa and the question of Peace. This chapter will make us understand peace from the African view point. The discussion will revolve around the scriptures, African traditional concept of peace and the modern African situation. This is because peace as one of the values of the Kingdom was lived by the people of God and when Christ came he taught about peace and the Church today is an agent of that peace. Chapter Three deals with Justice in Africa. This aims at showing us the traditional way the Prophets acted on issues of justice. It will also help us to understand the most basic norms of African social morality, namely justice in its different categories and practice. It will also highlight the theology of justice and how the values of peace and justice can be fully integrated into the daily pastoral life of the Church. It should be noted that the discussions in chapters one, two and three begin with a biblical survey. This is not by accident but well intended because our faith, our morality and our evangelization is grounded in scripture. , Chapter Four brings forward the discussion on the African Church and her future mission. This attempts to read the African Church in the 21st century and single out some aspects that would be crucial areas of apostolate. The general conclusion gives a general view of the discussion. The end notes are intended to indicate the theoretical sources as well as to show what historical and empirical materials have been utilized. Also an attempt has been made to convert some of the end notes into a bibliography attached to the essay at the last pages. The bibliography serves to indicate any book or source that was referred to during research. It includes a list of both written and oral sources (informants). Finally, the essay as a whole is not a systematic and comprehensive treatment of justice and peace issues in Africa. An enterprise worthy of this name would have to deal with vast materials which could not be contained in this short essay. Numerous theological questions and practical issues of great importance are dealt with only in passing if at all. For example, little is said about the overall content of moral life of Christians in African society. Nor are practical questions of the social implications of the equality of women and men; of the rich and poor; of tradition and modernity; of sacred and secular, dealt with except tangentially. Also the reader will have to bear with some generalizations since most of the time an example will be given either from one country or ethnic group while the argument has to portray the general African view. However, I hope this essay would provide some illustration of the kind of work that still needs to be done if the African Christian is to address the problems affecting him or her in this continent.
- ItemAfrican And Christian Perspective On Widowhood Rite(Tangaza University College, 2005) Acquaye, EmmanuelOne of the earliest Christian movements to arrive in Ghana was the Catholic Church, which made its debut in around 1899. The missionary zeal couple with the dedication of the local catechist and clergy enabled the church to make significant inroads into extensive stretches of the country, such that as at now, "Ghanaian Catholic population is 12.18% of the total population which is about 20 million. "1 Against the relative success, in the absence of any deliberate moves to integrate the strong local traditions, the church's teachings remained a largely foreign concept to many. Early missionaries, it would appear, had failed to grasp the significance or import of the local, albeit enriching cultural practices, which they dismissed outright as devilish or as fetish. Rituals pertaining to widowhood are particularly poignant here. A new convert would find it conflicting and difficult to reconcile what one believes compelling in the traditional values and the new Christian teaching. The situation becomes even worse for the hapless widow who faces severe challenges related to the loss of a loved one, material and emotional deprivation and then the conflicts between cultural and spiritual welfare. It therefore remains the onerous duty of the pastors and theologians and religious scholars to revisit the issue, study the matter, and come up with some solution to this burning problem. This research study aims at taking a critical look into the subject, seeking out the meaningful components of the traditional practices and reconciling them with the church's teachings and liturgy. It is anticipated that the findings will contribute in some way to the other efforts that are being made to formulate an acceptable procedure in the rites aimed at giving the widow some solace following the traumatizing loss. The research focuses on the Akan community, made up of several groups that are widely spread throughout Ghana. The afflictions and the indignity that befall the widows among these distinctive groups are similar in many aspects. Some references will, however, be made to relevant issues on the subject emanating from other ethnic groups, in order to elucidate certain points. The study begins with the background of the Akans and their culture, in particular as it pertains to rites for bereaved widows. It goes on to sift through the cultural practices to find out possible applications and integration into the church's liturgy. Finally, a look is made into what the support groups within the civil society, government agencies and the church itself can contribute to ameliorate the plight of the widow.
- ItemAfrican Christian Theology of Reconstruction(Tangaza University College, 2001-02) Maganya, HalerimanaAfrica is in crisis, and indeed in a deep crisis, which from the analysis of many, makes it a hopeless continent, ever degenerating and not capable of shaping its own future positively. We would have expected that with the age of technology, globalisation of the world economy and means of communication Africa would develop itself.' Instead while the world is becoming one global village Africa remains at the edge, if not swallowed by the village. Africa is more and more marginalised on the world's political and economic scene. Internally, there are a plethora of problems ranging from ethnic conflicts to gender based discrimination resulting in domestic violence. These conflicts include trans-border conflicts between African nations. The outcome of all this is the suffering of many, rendering it difficult to have any common meaningful project that can foster a better way of living together. Hence what is our attitude in front of this African situation? This essay is an attempt to look at African Theology in the light of the current situation of crisis on the continent. While many may be discouraged, this paper is about hope, a hope that lies in the Reconstruction of the continent based on Reconciliation and Forgiveness. The first chapter describes the African situation. According to Ka Mana2 we need to know what we have to reconstruct. He says that: "If we want to reconstruct our continent and build the finure, we must first have a correct idea of what has been destroyed and which is manifested in the crisis that our people and countries go through today.113 Though the analysis may be pessimistic, this chapter ends with a tone of hope. Hope is the source from which we draw our strength to undertake the project of rebuilding. It is difficult to undertake any endeavour without hope as a foundation. There has been other voices of hope, ours is only an emphasis. The second chapter confronts the theological thinking of Africans within the African reality. We look at the different trends in African Christian Theology and their relevance to the African continent. While acknowledging the genius of the scholars, we have basically concluded that this theology remains a privilege of a few and has little impact on the lives of many Africans. African theologians have not been able to shape the African mind so that it can be the agent of its own development. African scholars have so much emphasised the role of the West in the destruction of Africa that they have lost a vision for this continent. Instead of focusing on the empowerment of Africans they exclusively focus on theological elaborations and discussions that blame the West for Africa's misfortunes. Also they are theorists, praxis is lacking. The third chapter studies the Theology of Reconstruction, an emerging theology that tries to merge theory and praxis. It takes into account the concerns of Inculturation and Liberation Theologies arid at the same time claims to be a step ahead in that it focuses not on theoretical elaboration but on the praxis orientation of African theology. From this perspective a question arises as to the best way to reconstruct Africa. The fourth chapter proposes reconciliation and forgiveness as the way forward for reconstruction. This reconciliation takes place at different levels beginning with the relationship between Africa and the West; reconciliation of Africa as a whole with itself but also reconciliation between Africans themselves is needed so that together they may work for the re-building of this continent. This reconciliation process is based on the therapy of re-telling painful stories.4 It implies, on the side of the perpetrators of violence, the recognition of the harm done to the other party, while on the side of the victim; this requires a conscious effort of recalling the suffering. Only then can the victim forgive the one who has wronged him or her. And together the agent of suffering and the victim will be able to work together for the reconstruction of this continent. For there will be no reconstruction without reconciliation and forgiveness. Are we still reluctant to tread this path lest our efforts remain in vain? Are we afraid that future generations will judge the Reconstruction movement as "irrelevant" just like the Inculturation and Liberation movements? As I prepare myself to start my ministry as a missionary in Africa, the theme of reconstruction challenges me. It calls me to become actively involved in the transformation of the African society. For me the Icairos is now, the opportune time to work for the betterment of the continent is now. Also the theme of reconstruction poses a challenge to all those who are involved in African Christian Theology at the academic level to make a difference this time. For the question remains: Are we going to produce a theology that is relevant to Africa, or is reconstruction going to remain another paradigm invented for the intellectual curiosity of theologians? Is Theology of Reconstruction going to make an impact this time? Unless theology takes into consideration the plight of the Africans at the grass roots, it will remain academic. Working for reconciliation is one way of making theology of reconstruction practical. Why should we embark on this work? Why bother about theology and reconciliation? My own background prompted me to reflect on the future of this continent and my mission as a Missionary of Africa in a continent that is very much torn by endless conflicts. I was born of a mixed marriage between a Hutu and a Tutsi. I come from the Great Lakes region and particularly from the Democratic Republic of Congo. In this place there is a lot of political unrest mainly because the question of ethnic origin has been very much politicised and many people are being rejected, despised and denied their nationality because they belong to a particular tribe. Consequently for decades, this region has been bathed in bloody conflicts which have claimed the lives of millions of people in Burundi, Rwanda and Congo. So it is a challenge to a theological institute such as Tangaza College to develop an interest in African Christian Theology. So far such an interest in African theology is lacicing,5 and attempts to nurture such a theology have met with dismal results. An active participation in the ministry of reconciliation will be a sign of commitment to transform the African society. Practically, I fuld it difficult to bring the Good News of Jesus Christ to people who are suffering either because they are the cause of so many conflicts on this continent or because they are victims to such an extent that they cannot forgive. On which soil is the seed of the Gospel going to land? How can a divided people undertake the work of reconstruction? The story of Tower of Babel (Gen 11:1-9) shows that it is impossible to achieve anything if divided; hence reconciliation is an essential element in the reconstruction of Africa. The method used for collecting the data for this essay was primarily library research enriched with some personal experience with the victims of war, mainly refugees.
- ItemThe African Concept Of Marriage And The Inculturation Process(Tangaza University College, 2003) Muichavali, BenedictCulture is a set of meanings and values that organize human life and a world view In the life of each individual and especial!) the faithful. there are particular significant and decisive moments for discerning Gods call and embracing the mission entrusted M Him. Inculturation enables the local church to li e the best of the tradition oi her people in a w a\ that full integrates them within the life and message of Jesus Christ.
- ItemAfrican Death Rite Of Passage, Dialogue And Inculturation(Tangaza University College, 2000-02) Obbo, Stephen BenedictOne of the objectives of this paper is to lead to a deeper understanding of the mystery of death and the rituals surrounding it. The term "death" is commonly understood as "end of life" - and human experience seems to echo this. From the African context, death is looked at as a moment of passing from the earthly life to another realm of life. It is a rite of passage like birth, Initiation into adulthood and marriage. Philosophically, death is defined as a separation of the intertwine aspects of the human person. That is, the body and the soul. From the christian perspective, death is a mystery which can be answered only by another mystery, the death of Jesus Christ. From the clinical or biological definition, death is the point when the brain's functioning stops. Because of the complexity and depth of the African death rites, only a few ethnic groupings have been considered in this paper for the sake of clarity and particularity. These are: The Luo and Abaluyia of Kenya; The lteso, Baganda, Jopadhola and Bakonzo of Uganda, The chagga, Hehe and Bena of Tanzania; and the Ndebele of Zimbabwe. An attempt has, however, been made to discern some similarities and differences between the Christian and African Traditional concepts of death. The conclusion proposes the need for dialogue and inculturation of the compatible African death rites with Christianity. During the course of research, I used certain methods. This includes interviewing aided by a tape recorder. The informants are mainly from Uganda and Kenya and are from different walks of life. I also used questionnaire and library work.
- ItemAfrican Debt Crisis(Tangaza University College, 1997-04) Gonzalez, Armando RamosThe Third World debt crisis has been dragging on for over 15 years'. In 1990, the Third World debt exceeded a trillion dollars. With dimension so gargantuan, one wonders if it is not beyond hope and repair. In the face of so many issues, why should we look to the Third World debt? Debt is first and foremost a human problem. It both directly and indirectly affects the lives of people all around the globe. The dignity of persons, the sacredness of life, the bonds of community, the concern for the poor, all this is assaulted by the debt crisis. To live responsibly as a global citizen today one cannot ignore the extent and consequences of the global debt. Africa is the continent most affected by the debt crisis. By November 1992, Africa's total debt was then the equivalent to more than 100% of the continent's GNP. Latin America's total debt, in comparison, was equivalent to 50% of her GNP. Of the total debt servicing payment coining from Sub-Saharan Africa (excluding Nigeria) nearly 30% of it goes to paying loans given by private banks.2 This essay is going to present a picture of the African debt problem in order to encourage the Churches and Christians to consider the problem as a human problem and therefore a problem which can be considered in the pastoral programmes of the churches. Because it affects the lives of the poor. African debt crisis is a pastoral problem to be known. The first Chapter deals with the actual situation and an historical overview of African Debt Crisis. Chapter two explains the causes and effects of debt problem in the lives of the people, above all, the poor. Economic effects are presented separately in the third chapter. The ethical aspects are considered in the fourth chapter. Can the African debt be paid? It is a difficult question. The fifth chapter presents a possible solutions taking into account the "worldly", Christian and social ministry approaches. It is the goal of this paper to provide stimulation to encourage the faithful, the church hierarchies and everyone who feels concern with the gospel of Christ to be informed about a real pastoral problem which can make the future of our generation unbearable.
- ItemAn African Exodus: Special Reference to the Exodus of the Baoule of Ivory Coast(Tangaza University College, 2005) Yao Paulin, Kouassi AoussouToday, in a special way I remember my childhood like it was yesterday. I remember the nice smell of the sand when it rained, when we went to farm all day and came back very tired, and the special moment when we met in the night around the fire with our grandfather and some elders. I still remember the voice of my grandfather and the sound of the drums. Those days were the joyful moments of my life. hi the remote village, very far away, a village that the world may ignore, there, I was born in the silence of the night on the leaves of banana. I w as washed with cold water mixed with some plants. The first thing that touched my tongue was palm wine and then the voice of my grandfather followed to welcome me in the world. Full of mysteries where tomorrow is not known. Afraid, yes I was afraid, but my grandfather assured me his protection and guidance. My grandfather was well known in the entire region by his courage and also by his qualities as a great warrior. It is in the hand of such a great man that I was instructed. He was asked by the elders to be our teacher since he was the pillar o four tradition. Every night we gathered around him and listened to him attentively. I admired him a lot, you can see and feel our 'heritage' flowing from his soul and blood. He was a great man whose intelligence was well known, 'his head shines like fire'2. The method used by that great teacher was the narration of myths. All aspects of our life and about life were taught through myths. The entire heritage of our tradition was written in the soul and blood of my Grandfather. That it is why, we used to say, that if an old man died, it's like an entire library that has been destroyed. Since my childhood, I have been 'nourished by myths'. They formedme and through it I have learned about my tribe, my clan, and my ancestors and also to know the why and the teaching of the rules and morals of my community. Myths have forged my guiding principles and moral life. One who is not initiated into it, is not classified among 'humans' and has no right to sit among the elders. It is to say that, 'a child who has done sixty villages is wiser than an old man who is sixty years old and has never travelled'. Later on, in secondary school and at university, I came across Greek mythology, which has some similarities with ours, and it really fascinated me. Joining seminary was an opportunity for me to use that experience and background in sharing the Word of God, since myths can be found in the Bible too. And are well appreciated. Now it is an occasion for me to look closer at the myths and see in which way they can contribute to our effort of inculturating the Good News brought by our saviour Jesus Christ. Personally, I think that Christianity should be presented to other peoples and cultures in the way that is most meaningful for them. For that reason, the study of one of the myths of my people would be very helpful in presenting the Gospel since myths are a genuine part of our culture. It is an occasion also, to pay homage to my grandfather and through him to all the great Africans, who did their best to protect and to pass our traditions from generation to generation.
- ItemThe African Family Before And After Industrialization(Tangaza University College, 1997-02) Epajja, ConstantineI intend in this paper to explore and show how life was lived in the African Traditional family community before the period of industrialization. What the African concept sustained and helped the extended family to survive and fulfill her moral duties. In chapter four I shall discuss the place of material possessions in the African traditional family The origin of material things and the role it played in the family community: it enhanced the value, respect and dignity of both the individual and community, of both the poor and rich, and indeed of the stranger. The Supreme being and their ancestors blessed an individual with material property, so it was understood that the property was to be used to help the needy members in the community. Failure to do so would anger the Supreme Being and ancestors. Consequently, people cared for one another and shared their material things. A spirit absent today at the age of industrialization whereby people are more individualistic Having done that, then I shall also show ways in which the modern view of life is increasingly becoming focused on the acquisition of material things for meaningful life, hence subsequent erosion of moral standards of the past. How material things which enhanced the respect and dignity of the human person, has also contributed to the downfall of the human vocation - to live in the very freedom of the children of God. When God according to Genesis, created the world saw that it was good, then he entrusted it to the human race, it was to serve the ongoing development of that race into a community of material exchange and growing complicity. Yet all material property put into human hands immediately acquire a certain ambivalence. They can be either used to build up relationships as God intended, or they can be turned into instruments of division and violence. It is true that due to Western influence, the world is becoming more secularized and individualistic, with very little focus, concern paid to the humane and spiritual dimensions of human existence. In the African traditional family community there never existed a distinction between the Sacred and Secular. The basis of traditional morality lay in the firm belief in the unity of the universe. The unity of the universe defied any attempt separate secular from Sacred. I an also aware in this paper that my recommendations of having a new look back at old attitudes to material things, moral values in African traditional family, is not a romantic call to a return to an ancient form of life. Certainly industrialization is a positive sign that man obeys the commandment of God of subjecting the earth to himself and so Improve the standards of living. But because of the daily experience, African families are becoming more and more secularized and the African child is loosing contact with traditional culture and values. It is helpful to re-examine once more the African traditional familyvaluesbefore industrialization to discover what lessons can sustain African family today and enhance concern for others especially those lacking the basic human necessities of life. Many have values which modern society, family needs and certainly western societies need to learn so as to move towards liberation and more humane modes of life. Industrialization has caused many challenges today to the African modern family Challenges such as the weakening of the African Family communal life of the past and replaced it with inhuman structures as I shall show in the following chapters. Also in chapter three I shall discuss the values with which the extended African family respected and nurtured children with great honour. The life of a child was much loved to the extent that any act of abuse done to the child such as prostitution and rape, was severely punishable. For that reason, child abuse was rarely unheard of in the past family, incomparable to what is happening to the contemporary child. Then chapter five I will give the teaching of the Church on Family, marriage and children which is compatible with my earlier treatise. Finally, I shall offer a critical evaluation on Family as a Universal phenomena, hence drawing some pastoral suggestive guidelines for pastors, parents, leaders and indeed, for all those who are inveloped in Family education, catechesis and evangelization. I would like to sum up my introductory words with a quotation of the Pope's opening homily of the African Synod as a Preliminary insight and Foundation of my paper: "The sons and daughters of Africa love life. It is precisely this love for life which leads them to give such great Importance to the Veneration of their ancestors . The believe instinctively that the dead continue to live and remain in communion with them. Is this not in some way a preparation for belief in the communion of Saints? The People of Africa respect their life which is conceived and born. They rejoice in this life. They reject the idea that it can be destroyed, even when the so-called "Progressive Civilizations" would like to lead them in this direction. And practices hostile to life are Imposed on them by means of economic systems which serve the selfishness of the rich"' The Pope continued in these words, We are pleased to notice that opening up towards life is one of the most beautiful and typical features of the African continent, on the other hand, we are very sorry and worried to see that this continent is torn apart by old tension and bloody wars. We can only be deeply struck and upset by this dramatic contrast between love and hate, between joy to live and terror, between solidarity and fratricide, between life and death
- ItemThe African Family: A Comparative Approach To The Trinity(Tangaza University College, 2001-02) Awity Sheith Oluoch, MauriceThe doctrine of the Trinity is central to the Christian revelation. In fact the confession of one God in three persons is rightly regarded as proper and specific to Christian faith and revelation. This Trinitarian confession is and will always remain a mystery, a problem that believers have to contend with. Through the ages, theologians of various cultural milieus have given different interpretations to the Trinity. These theologians have used analogies and theoretical categories that helped their contemporaries to understand and appreciate the mystery of the Trinity. It is the contention of this essay that an African understanding of the mystery of the Trinity cannot rely on categories and models that are not close to their own reality. The study like the one we are taking is focused on using a category and model close to the African cultures. There are several images used to depict the Trinity. In this work we have taken the family as an appropriate image. The approach is in line with the AMECEA Bishops and the Synod of 1995 proposal; the 'Church as Family of God'. This theological 'discovery' was provoked by the need for a better and integral understanding of the Church and the Christian faith in general. In this paper the focus is to show how the African model of the Family helps in understanding the Trinity.
- ItemAn African Indigenous Perspective of Initial Christian Religious Accompaniment(Tangaza University College, 2005-10) Santos Lobo, Isabel DosThis study is meant to address some of the anomalies observed in the initial formation of African candidates to Christian Religious Life. I shall attempt this by comparing Agikuyu initiation process with the Christian religious initial formation. The study is based on the assumption that there are many good values within the African initiation rites that could be applied in the formation of African young candidates to Christian Religious Life. Inculturation of Christian values within the African context implies searching for African ways of forming Africans. The current way of forming Africans has been successful as far as the adherence to religious life by Africans is concerned, but it is doubtful if it is effective and accommodative of the African culture. Do Africans feel at home right from their early stage of formation or do they perceive their formation as a foreign project? Do African formators feel free to bring in their cultural values to formation or they feel forced to follow the rigid European model of formation? These and other questions will constitute the core of this paper in order to seek for effective ways of forming candidates to Christian Religious Life.
- ItemAfrican Psycho-Religious Understanding of `Ratum ET Consummatum' Versus Catholic Church's Teaching(Tangaza University College, 2001-02) Priscus, Michael MassaweOn Friday 2ld Jan. 2000, the Holy Father received the prelate Auditors, Officials and Advocates of the Tribunal of the Roman Rota for the solemn opening of the judicial year. Addressing the Jurists in the Sala Clementina of the Apostolic Palace, the Pope spoke of the possible juridical effect of the current divorce mentality on the marital consent and reiterated the church's constant teaching that ratified and consummated marriage cannot be dissolved by any human power not even the Roman pontiff. The Holy Father insisted on the church's finidamental duty to reaffirm strongly as the Synod Fathers did, the doctrine of the indissolubility of marriage (FC.20) in order to dispel the shadow that seems to be cast over the value of the indissolubility of the conjugal bond by certain opinions stemming from theological and canonical research (L'osservatore Romano, 26th Jan. 2000). Looking at our African situation whereby the marriage issue is one of the major challenges in the pastoral work in the parishes and this declaration of the Holy Father to all Christians, I started to ponder about our church here in Africa where there is a lot of an accentuate increase of marriage dissolution_ Reading in the Newspapers, maga7ines and articles we find a lot of marriages broken e.g. separation of ratified and consummated marriage, divorce, cohabitation and the like. Reflecting on what might be the causal factor, I realized that there is misunderstanding between our African culture and traditional understanding of marriage with that of Catholic Church's teaching. For instance, African culture, which allows marriage separation, polygamy etc., differs with the church's teaching on indissolubility and monogamy of marriage. It is in line with this, we made an assumption that African psycho-religious understanding of ratum et consummatum versus catholic church's teaching is a pastoral issue today which requires an immediate solution for the betterment of African Christian people. It is from this assumption that we were prompted to carry out this research work for the justification that African psycho-religious understanding of ratum et consummatum versus catholic church's teaching is a pastoral issue today. The results, discussions carried out are placed in this research work. All findings placed in this research work are emanating from the responses of the respondents from Arusha Archdiocese in Tanzania. The data were discussed and analyzed in which the recommendations and practical pastoral suggestions for the future research were developed.
- ItemAfrican Traditional Healing(Tangaza University College, 2011) Yaw, Adu SamuelThe Akan community of the Southern Ghana is very traditional in nature. For several years, the lifestyle, thinking pattern, worldview, and cultural practices of the people has not changed much in spite of formal education and western influence. Although a lot has changed over the years as viewed from the periphery, the typical Akan knows that people still maintain their traditions and observe their customs. This research is something we have longed to do over the years. In the culture in which we grew up it was common that some Christians consulted one traditional healer, witch doctor, diviner, etc. during difficult times such as sickness, calamities, etc. It is also out of observation during my pastoral year experience in Ghana in 2008,2009. In our pastoral work, we visited the sick people at their homes, gave them Holy Communion and shared the word of God with them. My observation during that period was that some would visit one traditional healer or the other from time to time. As an African Christian, we would like to research in this area so as to understand this phenomenon to equip me in my future ministiy as a priest.